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The network operating system NOS routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources.
A server computer is a computer on a network that performs important network functions for client computers, such as serving up Web pages, storing data, and storing the network operating system and hence controlling the network.
Hubs are very simple devices that connect network components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices. A switch has more intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data to a specified destination on the network.
A router is a communications processor used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that the data sent gets to the correct address.
Contemporary digital networks and the Internet are based on three key technologies: Packet switching is a method of slicing digital messages into parcels called packets, send-ing the packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destinations A protocol is a set of rules and procedures governing transmission of information between two points in a network.
Provides a universally agreed- on method for breaking up digital messages into packets, routing them to the proper addresses, and then reassembling them into coherent messages. TCP establishes a connection between the computers, sequences the transfer of packets, and acknowledges the packets sent.
IP refers to the Internet Protocol IP which is responsible for the delivery of packets and includes the disassembling and reassembling of packets during transmission. The Application layer enables client application programs to access the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data.
The Transport layer is responsible for providing the Application layer with communication and packet services. The Internet layer is responsible for addressing, routing, and packaging data packets called IP datagrams. At the bottom of the reference model, the Network Interface layer is responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium, which could be any networking technology.
An analog signal is represented by a continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium and has been used for voice communication. The most common analog devices are the telephone handset, the speaker on your computer, or your iPod earphone, all of which create analog wave forms that your ear can hear.
A digital signal is a discrete, binary waveform, rather than a continuous waveform. Digital signals communicate information as strings of two discrete states: Computers use digital signals Modem Modem stands for modulator- demodulator.
Wide area networks WANs Telecommunications networks that span a large geographical distance. May consist of a variety of cable, satellite, and microwave technologies. The internet peer- to- peer Network architecture that gives equal power to all computers on the network; used primarily in small networks 10 or fewer.
The various computers on the network can exchange data by direct access and can share peripheral devices without going through a separate server.
The Windows domain network model in contrast, uses a dedicated server to manage the computers in the network. There are three major LAN topologies: All communications between network devices must pass through the host computer. The bus topology is the most common Ethernet topology.
Networks use different kinds of physical transmission media, including twisted wire, coax-ial cable, fiber optics, and media for wireless transmission. Data are transmitted as light pulses. There are three kinds of wireless networks used by computers: Microwave systems both terrestrial and celestial, transmit high- frequency radio signals through the atmosphere and are widely used for high- volume, long- distance, point- to- point communica-tion.
Microwave signals follow a straight line and do not bend with the curvature of the earth. The total amount of digital information that can be transmitted through any telecommunications medium is measured in bits per second bps. For instance, the IP address of www. Domain Name System is a hierarchical system with a root domain, top-level domains, second-level domains, and host computers at the third level.
The domain name The domain name is the English- like name that corresponds to the unique bit numeric IP address for each computer connected to the Internet. Top- level domains are two- and three- character names you are familiar with from surfing the Web, for example. Second- level domains have two parts, designating a top- level name and a second- level name— such as buy.
A host name at the bottom of the hierarchy designates a specific computer on either the Internet or a private network.Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture.
Telecommunications Networks and their Scope. The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers: Computers and telecommunications create value together. · The threat from cyber crime is multi-dimensional, targeting citizens, businesses, and governments at a rapidly growing rate.
Cyber criminal tools pose a direct threat to security and play an increasingly important role in facilitating most forms of organised crime and metin2sell.com · In summary, the cultural and social changes accompanied by globalization and informatization have clear relevance to theorists in intercultural communication in at least three key metin2sell.com · The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth.
A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called a router connects LANs to a metin2sell.com://metin2sell.com The Internet of Things requires enterprises to recruit or train experts in new sets of technologies and in new business models.
Groups that monitor emerging trends should look at five key technologies. B) managing combinations of applications, networks, systems, storage, and security as well as providing Web site and systems performance monitoring to subscribers over the Internet.
C) hosting and managing access to software applications delivered over the Internet to clients on a subscription metin2sell.com://metin2sell.com